Energy is one of the prioritised value chains in the Mexico-Guatemala border area, because of its strategic importance for the region. It covers the oil and gas value chain as well as renewable energy sources and their related value chains.
The Oil and Gas Energy has become the most globally traded product, it is the resource that feeds the largest percentage of the world’s energy consumption, hence its fundamental importance for industrial development and transportation. Mexico produces about 2.85 million barrels a year and according to forecasts the experts have great prospects in their crude production, especially with the recent implementation of the Energy Reform. Guatemala's 526 million barrels of proven oil reserves are located primarily in the country's northern jungles of the Peten basin, and are most likely associated with those in Mexico's Tabasco formation.
The oil and gas value chain includes all processes of exploration, extraction, refining, transport and marketing of petroleum products. The process is classified in three major stages: ‘upstream’ (exploration and production), ‘midstream’ (transport, processes and storage), and ‘downstream’ (refining, sales and distribution).
Renewable energy is energy generated by renewable or natural resources such as geothermal heat, sunlight, water and wind. According to the International Energy Agency, “renewable energy is at the center of the transition to a less carbon-intensive and more sustainable energy system”. Renewable energy plays an increasingly important role in the global economy thanks to its contribution in mitigating the impact of climate change and in guaranteeing energy security. Wind and solar energy also have vast potential as drivers for local industries, investment, and the creation of jobs.
The value chain of renewable energy covers processes of manufacturing, installation, grid connection, operation and maintenance. Renewable energy production procedures cover a broad variety of stages involving a great number of different professional profiles. The life cycle of a renewable energy project, from idea to execution, includes the following stages: Research and development, project development, engineering, manufacture of components, acquisitions.
Offshore activities related to energy tend to merge within the concept of blue economy and maritime clusters. They can cover activities and technologies related to oil and gas extraction but also to offshore wind power generation.
In the European Union several regions focus on the development of their ‘Energy’ value chains, mainly through ‘Energy Clusters’. Examples include:
- Lombardy Energy Cleantech Cluster (IT);
- The Basque Energy Cluster (E);
- The Energy Cluster of the Valencia Region (E);
- The Vallée de l'Energie (FR);
- Ökoenergie cluster (AT);
- Energy Saxony (D);
- Flux50 Flanders (BE);
- Team Humber Marine Alliance (UK);
- Energy Cluster Portugal, Copenhagen Cleantech Cluster (DK)
- Lithuanian Photovoltaic Technology Cluster;
- OffShore Väst (SE) etc.